Job 12:1-14:22

Key Verse(s):

Job 14:4 (CSB)
4 Who can produce something pure from what is impure? No one!


Job 12:2

Job comes back with what is obviously sarcasm.

Job 12:3

Job does not contest that any of the truths that his friends have been conveying, he says here that he knows them as well! Obviously though, we know that Job is innocent of the sin that the retributive justice described by his friends would be doled out in response to.

Job 12:4

Job is very clear here that he claims to be blameless, referring to himself as “righteous and upright.” Yet he suffers under God’s punishment.

Job 12:5

Job calls out his friends here by saying because they are “at ease”, they cast judgment easily on those in the midst of God’s fury, assuming their deserving of it due to sin (“feet are slipping”).

Job 12:6

This verse is interesting. On one hand it points out the obvious exceptions to the justice theology espoused by Job’s friends so far. Certainly the friends would have been aware of sinful people who did not suffer punishment from God. But the final phrase in the verse takes the idea further: it’s not just that God turns a blind eye, but instead it is as if God himself is protecting the evil-doer, holding them in his mighty hands. Certainly this should not lead us to understand God as a champion for evil, but instead inform our understanding of his absolute sovereignty, and his perfect understanding and foresight so that he may very well deem it so that evil be allowed to occur, even if it requires his divine ordination and assurance to happen.

Job 12:7–9

Job suggests that it is so clear that his trials are the orchestration of God, that even the creatures, and the earth itself, recognize it as so!

Job 12:10–12

Job reiterates what has become an accepted truth: God is in control of everything, including man.

Job 12:13–25

Job goes through a list of examples to emphasize God’s sovereign rule over his creation. He includes not just the “good” things we would expect, but the destructive and undesirable as under God’s control, as well as making clear that man is not the one in control, even of those things we would naturally attribute to the power of man.

Job 13:1–2

Job reminds his friends that they are not the only ones who know of the general way man understands God’s works: he also knows these beliefs. This is not a situation where this group of wise men are imparting wisdom on one less enlightened.

Job 13:3

This is an interesting statement by Job. It conveys the sense that Job does not care to justify himself before his friends, after all, they are not his judge, nor do they have any control over his situation. It also is an example of man seeking God directly, not through a human mediator.

Job 13:4–5

Job then ridicules his friends, letting them know that their silence was more of a comfort than their lying words.

Job 13:7–9

As Job begins to again to present his defense, he poses three rhetorical questions to his friends, the first two demanding their impartiality as they weigh Job’s defense and God’s, the last reminding them of their accountability before a righteous God in being honest.

Job 13:10–12

The following three verses then provide one more rhetorical question sandwiched by two statements, all of which reinforce the mandate that they be impartial and fair.

Job 13:15

What a tremendous statement of faith! How often do we say we should be string in our faith and hope in God even when we are at our deepest depths? Here Job lives it… in the face of death, which I think Job believes is a real possibility here, he places his hope in God.

And on top of that, how often are we easily shaken and lured away from the path we know God has for us, so quick to compromise ourselves for the approval of man? Yet here is Job, resolute in continuing to defend the life he believes has been a righteous one.

Job 13:16

Again, what a great statement of faith! Job essentially claims salvation through his defense and exercise of his righteous ways. And lest we think Job has a skewed picture of who might be saved, he clearly states that those who are godless will not stand before God.

Job 13:18–19

Job reiterates his confidence in his righteousness, in his case that he is to present against God’s treatment of him. He is so confident that he again refers to dying, this time if anyone can prove his guilt.

Job 13:20–22

Job apparently turns his address to God here. In doing so, Job makes two requests of God: to remove his hand from Job and not terrify him, presumably so Job could come before God and present his case, and, second, that God would interact with Job either through a call and Job’s response, or a response to Job’s address.

Job 13:23–27

After laying out the two conditions Job feels are necessary in order to present his case before God, he goes right into a charge for God to justify the punishment Job has endured. He asks to know the sins he is guilty of, why he is God’s enemy, and suggests that his fate is an unfair one.

Job 13:28–14:2

Job returns to the recurring theme of the brevity of human life, obviously in respect to God, with two metaphors. There is also a sense of weakness, or frailty, in the second.

Job 14:3

Is Job really asking if God notices and judges such fleeting creatures such as men? Or is he asking rhetorically, as if to express surprise and amazement that the God of the universe so cares about the affairs of men to do so? I think the latter seems more likely.

Job 14:4

Job here clearly states the “T” in TULIP! Man is totally depraved, sinful, and impure. It is worth noting that Job would be included in this: Job is not without sin. The point he has been making though, when defending his righteousness, is that his sin is certainly not commensurate with the judgment he has been subjected to. And it is clear that Job has a righteous attitude towards God.

Job 14:5–6

These verses have a sort of double-meaning to them. On the one hand Job conveys a solid theological premise: God is in complete control of our lives, even down to the day we cease to live. On the other, it seems obvious that Job is referring to himself specifically, not some general “person”, and he sees his role as a “hired worker”, thus God as the “overseer”.

Job 14:7–10

Job starts into the theme of death again, another recurring theme. He begins by comparing a tree, and the fact that a tree can spring new life despite being cut down, or dying due to age, via saplings, or new shoots and sprouts, to the fact that for man death is permanent. Obviously Job is speaking in a physical sense here.

Job 14:11–12

Here Job compares men to a lake that dries up, simply disappearing. But he also reminds us that he has a fuller understanding of the afterlife when he speaks of men waking up when the “heavens are no more.” It seems clear Job understands that physical death is not a final death.

Job 14:13–17

Job continues the flow of thought, essentially asking to be “overlooked” in death, or Sheol, until the appointed time to be called back. The question he asks in v14, “When a person dies, will he come back to life?” seems clearly rhetorical, as all the surrounding verses seem to clearly suggest Job’s belief.

Job 14:18–22

Things turn ugly in the closing verses though, as Job returns to a dark view of God’s role in the lives of men. All the hope that was in the previous collection of verses is matched by gloom and doom in these verses. Job closes his speech on an accusatory note towards God.


Lord, thank you for your sovereignty, for loving us despite our depravity, for dying for us while we are steeped in our sin. I pray that, even when we are in despair, that we reach for you, turn to you, lean into you. Help us to worship and glorify you at all times, in all situations. Amen.



Job 11:1-20

Key Verse(s):

Job 11:7 (CSB)
7 Can you fathom the depths of God or discover the limits of the Almighty?



Job 11:2 – Zophar , like Bildad had in Job 8:2, attacks Job for being “wordy”, talking too much. The CSB translates the last word as “acquitted”, while a number of other translations (NIV, NKJV, etc.) translate it as “vindicated”.  A slightly different connotation I think: “getting off” vs “being proved right”.

Job 11:3 – Zophar seems to have taken Job’s retorts to heart, and here strikes back. So immediately it is clear where the rest of his speech will be headed: along the same lines as the other friends before him.

Job 11:4-6 – Zophar incorrectly quotes Job, but the message is clear: Zophar does not believe Job to be righteous. He doubles down by suggesting that if God were to audibly speak, he would do so against Job. Further, Zophar goes on to suggest in v6 that were God to punish Job for all his sin things would be even worse! Perhaps this is a technical truth, for even one sin against a righteous God deserves eternal death, and most assuredly we have been extended some common grace evidenced by our breath and continued life at a minimum, yet the statement is tremendously callous here in light of Job’s position and condition.

Job 11:7-9 – Zophar returns to safer ground here, although remaining in the context of his accusation of Job’s sin, by reciting clear truths about God, which all parties, both the friends and Job, would wholeheartedly agree upon. In v8 he provides the stark contrast between God and man, specifically Job here, but applicable to all created people, by contrasting the exceeding greatness of God to the insufficiency of man via the rhetorical questions, “what can you do?” and “what can you know?”

It is somewhat ironic how Zophar claims that God’s limits are unknowable, yet he seems to be certain that he knows how God operates and why it is Job has suffered what he has deemed God’s judgment.

Job 11:10-11 – Two rhetorical questions here further support the claim of God’s sovereignty. Obviously there is nobody to contest God’s justice, for nobody knows more than him. Nor would we ever expect a perfectly just God to “look past” iniquity, and therefore be “corrupt”.

Job 11:12 – This is an odd phrase that seems to be pointing out how impossible it is for a “stupid” person to understand the nature of God and his exceeding knowledge. Further, considering the context, it would seem this is not just a general statement, but pointed at Job, especially considering the start of v13 being “As for you [Job].”

Job 11:13-14 – Zophar now proceeds to give Job his advice on how he may rectify the terrible situation he is in due to what he assumes is God’s judgment. The teaching here is sound and reliable, specifically for the rebellious in heart, but Job is not the one it applied to.

Job 11:15-19 – Zophar then provides a number of benefits that Job should expect if he were to follow his advice. Again, there is nothing that glares of heresy here, they are general statements that are easily applicable to a regenerate life that has found assurance and joy in God’s saving grace. But again, the audience, Job, is the incorrect one, and all of these rewards should have been expected by Job, yet they were obviously far from him.

Job 11:20 – The final verse of Zophar’s speech is interesting. On the one hand, perhaps it is simply a contrast to the preceding cause-and-effect verses, to be explicit about the alternative. More pointedly, Zophar intends it as a direct warning to Job in an attempt to spur Job into repentance. Most nefariously, Zophar intends it as a poignant accusation of Job’s state, considering Job has previously wished for death, his “last hope”, thus placing Job squarely in the “wicked” camp in Zophar’s estimation.


Lord, thank you for your perfect will, undeserved grace, and loving mercy. You are so big that we can never fully comprehend you or your ways, but I pray that we will trust both! Help us to be obedient in midst of turmoil, and help us to be attuned to your will. Amen.

Job 9:1-10:22

Key Verse(s):

Job 9:2 (CSB)
2 Yes, I know what you’ve said is true, but how can a person be justified before God?



Job 9:2-13 – This section is, in general, another description of God’s supremacy. Job 9:2b provides a glimpse of where Job is though: the “righteous” man who is not being treated by God as Job and his friends would expect (which happens to be the disagreement between Job and his friends!). There is a theme of detachment though in this section from Job, presumably due to his feeling of being abandoned by God.

Job 9:6 – Job seems to be describing earthquakes, which are under the control of God.

Job 9:7 – Job is possibly attributing the day/night cycle to God? Or certainly eclipses, or other conditions that might block out the light from celestial bodies.

Job 9:11-13 – Job’s description of the power of God turns sour here, as he conveys his detachment from God, and what he sees as some sort of capricious punishment by God.

Job 9:14-15 – This is an interesting thought. The idea that Job ultimately conveys is that there is no greater standard, above God, that God must somehow adhere to, for Job to appeal to. In other words, even though Job may be innocent, and what God has brought upon him may seem to Job (and us) as unfair, there is no argument against the one who is absolutely sovereign and is the very definition of what is “right”. Job revisits the idea in Job 9:19-20.

Job 9:16 – This verse seems to be Job’s frustration speaking, as we know that God does in fact pay attention and is intimately involved with us. In fact, despite the horrific ordeal Job has had to endure, he continues to draw breath, and even dwell upon the mighty God, thus proving the gracious sustaining power and mercy of God that even the most ardent unbeliever enjoys as well.

Job 9:21 – Job states his blamelessness before God., harkening back to what we, the reader, know was said by God in Job 1.

Job 9:22-24 – Job continues to cast God in an unfavorable light here, certainly the result of his despair. This is a dangerous place to be, and there is a definite tension knowing the dire place Job is treading.

Job 9:25-31 – Job turns to lament the brevity of life, and the futility of it. There is obviously an exaggeration in some of this, tainted by his current state, as we know from Job 1 that Job had experienced plenty of “good”. Nonetheless, he finds himself feeling abandoned and hopeless currently, and conveys this to his friends (and also to God?).

Job 9:32-33 – Again Job notes that God stands above the law, he is the law, and there is no other standard he can be held to.

Job 9:33 – Could this be a sort of foreshadowing of the mediator, our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ?

Job 10:1-2 – Job now turns his attention to God, addressing him directly. This odd sort of “prayer”, I think, is a great, if not extreme, example of what we should do when we are questioning God, and feeling abandoned by him… we come to him, address him, plead with him.

Job 10:2-7 – Job essentially addresses what he sees as God’s unfair punishment upon him, and sort of asking rhetorical questions that imply God’s behavior is like that of a mere man (possibly a jab at his friends and their inability to discern Job’s honesty).

Job 10:8-12 – We see here that Job has not lost sight of who God truly is, as he confirms the creator status of God, and the implied relational aspect between God and his creatures, characterized by the term “faithful love”.

Job 10:13-17 – This section is not Job returning to a negative view of God. It is just the opposite: it Job’s affirmation that God is a good God, intolerant of sin! Further, Job admits that none are truly, completely, righteous before God. This is not a concession to the accusations of his friends though: both Job and the reader are aware of his status before God, despite his humanity.

Job 10:18-22 – Job’s response concludes with Job issuing another wish for death. It is noteworthy that just because we may have an understanding of who God is, and his nature, that does not mean things will be great and pleasurable. If nothing else, Job shows us that there are no guarantees that the righteous will be happy and content at all times.


Lord, thank you for being the sovereign God! I pray that even in our darkest times we would claim your glory and perfection. We can bring to case against you, because you are the standard, the judge and jury. Help us to honor you and bring you glory in all things we do and say, at all times, good and bad. Amen.

Job 8:1-22

Key Verse(s):

Job 8:3 (CSB)
3 Does God pervert justice? Does the Almighty pervert what is right?



Job 8:2 – Bildad sets the tone for his speech, immediately being confrontational. He continues the position that Job is not admitting his sin, which is the cause for God’s wrath upon him.

Job 8:3 – Bildad speaks an absolute truth here: God does not pervert justice, he is perfectly just! Where we perhaps find issue with his statement is with his application of it in job’s case, a man who is “righteous” before God.

Job 8:4 – Wow, this is a heartless accusation and presumption on the part of someone who is supposed to be a friend. Not only was there nothing in the preceding chapters to suggest the children of Job were sinners (obviously all are sinners, but to the extent we might suspect the retribution of death is not suggested at all), but it was recorded that Job gave sacrifices on behalf of his children “just in case”!

Job 8:5-7 – Again, Bildad provides wise counsel, but in the wrong context since we already know that Job has been described as a man who loves God. Further, the promise that Bildad provides here just feels wrong, like it is promising too much, or more accurately, more than Bildad can “guarantee”. There is every reason to expect God to bless a righteous home, but we see Job as the proof that it is no guarantee.

Job 8:8-10 – Bildad again provides a generally true piece of wisdom: look to, and rely on, the wisdom of the previous generations. After all, they have done much of the “work” that we stand upon and move forward from.

I find this insight especially poignant in the current cultural climate in the west. What would our culture, especially the church, look like if we would heed this wisdom. Would the radical, sweeping, and rapid upheaval of the traditional understanding of marriage, gender, and fundamental questions of origin be as they are today?

Job 8:11-13 – This is sort of an obscure metaphor from Bildad. It would seem that he is suggesting something similar to “you reap what you sow.” And in verse 13 thinly veils his tie back to Job and what he thinks will be Job’s destiny in his unrepentant state.

Job 8:14-19 – Bildad continues with two more metaphorical pictures of where he believes Job is. First comparing Job’s apparent reliance on himself rather than God to looking to a spider web for support. Second he uses the picture of a plant with roots intertwined among rocks, easily uprooted.

Job 8:20 – As Bildad closes his speech, he provides one more truth, yet again out of context, by implying that Job is currently an “evildoer”.

Job 8:21-22 – Bildad provides a picture for job, of what his future could be should he repent. He sees a future where Job is yet again happy and joyful. Ironically, he also sees Job’s enemies “clothed in shame”, without a tent, or home, all the while placing himself in that camp with his inflexible attitude towards Job.


Lord, thank you for revealing truths about you, even though they may be misapplied by us. You are perfectly just, and fully sovereign. Help us to trust your judgement, and cling to you no matter if we are drowning in blessings or turmoil brought about by your hand. Amen.

Job 6:1-7:21

Key Verse(s):

Job 6:10 (CSB)
10 It would still bring me comfort, and I would leap for joy in unrelenting pain that I have not denied the words of the Holy One.


Job 6:2-4 – Job emphasizes his grief and devastation with a couple word pictures. He reinforces that it is the doing of God, even stating “God’s terrors are arrayed against me.”

Job 6:5-7 – Job seems to continue the food motif he started in v4, suggesting he would not be complaining if what God had given him was satisfactory food. Instead, Job refuses to accept what God has given him, equating it not just to bland and unpalatable food, but “contaminated food.”

Job 6:8 – “If only God would do what I ask…” The desire of man! We cannot accuse Job of this out-of-context thought though, as he uses it in a much different sense, pleading for escape from his pain, as is evidenced by v9.

Job 6:10 – The premise is clear here: Job would be at peace if God were to end his life, even if it meant great pain forever, knowing that he had been faithful to God!

Job 6:11-13 – Job conveys his sense of hopelessness. And we should expect such considering he believes God has aligned himself against Job… what hope is there in such a circumstance?!? Verse 13 subtly gives us an amazing truth: “I cannot help myself.” We are hopeless, without the ability to improve our station, apart from God.

Job 6:14-23 – Job turns his focus upon his so called friends here. He expresses his disappointment in them, comparing them to treacherous and fleeting in their “loyalty”, which a true friend should expect no matter what. He reminds them that he has never asked them to do something unrighteous, or even for help, before.

Job 6:24 – Job appeals to his friends to actually help him understand his circumstances. I believe this is an honest appeal by Job.

Job 6:25-27 – Job’s appeal then turns more accusatory with each verse. Starting by pointing out that his friends have provided nothing useful to explain his situation, to accusing them of selling an orphan, suggesting their lack of compassion.

Job 6:28-30 – Job reiterates his righteousness, and asks his friends to “reconsider” their position against him of having sinned and being the object of God’s retribution.

Job 7:1-10 – Job returns to lamenting his current situation, believing the rest of his days will hold no chance of seeing good, let alone being the object of grace.

Job 7:11-16 – If Job had not already been addressing God, he certainly is within these verses, where he reiterates his desire to die, and have God “leave him alone.”

Job 7:17-19 – Job questions God as to why he seems to be so obsessed with Job specifically, constantly “testing” him. Ironically, one of the reasons we should praise and thank God, the fact that he knows each of us intimately and is omnipresent, is what Job here suggests he would God to stop!

Job 7:20 – Again Job insists on his righteousness, asking God to reveal what sin he has performed. This is obviously a rhetorical question, because Job has consistently maintained his righteousness all along, but conveys the struggle to make sense of his current standing before God appearing to be very bad.

Job 7:21 – Job recognizes that God has the divine power to forgive sin. What Job had not pieced together, but we know, is that God also has the divine power to punish and curse!


Lord, thank you for being in perfect, divine, powerful, control! What amazing faith it is for Job to find comfort in the fact that he followed your law, despite everything around him falling apart… I pray for that faith for us. Help us to not see you through our circumstances, but to see you despite our circumstances, and especially in our circumstances. Amen.


Job 4:1-5:27


Key Verse(s):

Job 4:8 (CSB)
8 In my experience, those who plow injustice and those who sow trouble reap the same.


Eliphaz at first seems to be giving Job “a pass” on his previous lament and desire for death, chalking it up to Job’s “exhaustion”. But then he immediately counters by suggesting what Job has said is too much to let pass, and must be countered… so the confrontation begins.

Eliphaz recounts the honorable and upstanding nature of Job, reassuring him of his status as a quality man. Again Eliphaz suggests that Job is simply not thinking straight due to the stress and exhaustion brought upon him by the trials he has, and continues to, endured.

Not sure how Eliphaz means to convey Job 4:6: is he suggesting it in a way that should comfort Job because he had been a good man, or is he suggesting Job should return to piety and integrity?

Job 4:7-8 are the sum of Eliphaz’s view: the wicked are cursed, the righteous are blessed. Despite knowing Job’s righteous past, Eliphaz is unable to fathom the curse he endures as anything but the reaping of Job’s sin. This is essentially the theme of the three friends arguments through the rest of the book. Unfortunately it does not describe Job, and actually fails to understand the full and absolute sovereignty of God to use all things to and for his glory and ultimate purposes… even bad things happening to good people.

Job 4:9-11 convey the ultimate power of God to repay sin. The illustration with the lions seems weird, but perhaps the regional setting makes it appropriate and meaningful, at least in the sense that even the powerful are at the mercy of God. The New American Commentary notes the allusion to wind, and even the same use of the word ruah for “breath” as was used for the wind that killed Job’s children.

Eliphaz claims, in Job 4:12-16, to have had some sort of dream revelation, consisting of both audible and visual parts, but the part of greater import of the audible revelation. Who knows if he was telling the truth, as it was a special revelation only experienced by him, and there is no obvious claim that it was from God.

Who knows how much of Job 4:17-21 are the content of the vision versus Eliphaz’s words… if there is any difference at all! The point is that man is nothing compared to God, and is, in fact, extremely fragile and foolish, of no worth before God. and while the ultimate message of it is true in a sense: we are fragile, foolish, and worthless compared to, and apart from, God, the message seems to be an effort to bring Job down, abandon his righteous claim.

Eliphaz continues to support his reasoning of the wicked gaining curses and the righteous being blessed. He charges Job to call out to the angels, and obviously none will respond, presumably due to Job’s unrepentant and foolish heart. In the end it is all humanity that suffers from the curse of sin and foolishness, it is their nature. Again, there is truth here, but it is applied out of context in the case of Job, and Eliphaz does not see that.

Starting in Job 5:8, Eliphaz now offers Job some advice! “Appeal to God” and “present my case” are the two parts that comprise what he thinks Job should do. Eliphaz goes on the provide a picture of the greatness of God and his mercy. He begins with a general statement in v9, then provides a number of more specific examples.

In v17 the examples of God’s mercy and greatness shift to a more personally directed nature. Beginning with a plead to accept God’s discipline, the remainder of the verses are all directed to “you”, presumably meaning Job. Interestingly, they do not outline an avoidance of calamity and turmoil, but instead suggest a sort of protection from the events, ultimately resulting in happiness, presumably coming out of one’s acceptance of God’s discipline.

Eliphaz concludes his speech with the claim that “we” (he and the other two friends we must conclude) know his claims to be true, and that Job should receive it and understand it as truth as well. And although we can certainly find truth in some of what Eliphaz has stated, we are privy to the knowledge that he is wrong as far as Job is concerned, and therefore ultimately has an incomplete theology of God.


Lord, thank you for revealing truth about you in so many ways. Even though we can see that Eliphaz was incorrect about Job and his state before you, and the cause of his suffering, we are also able to glean important truths about your nature from his words: your sovereign authority, your absolute power, and our status in relation to yours. I pray that we would all be able to open our minds and allow for you to work in any way you deem fit, even if it goes against what we “know” in our own limited and childlike knowledge. Amen.


Job 3:1-26

Key Verse(s):

Job 3:23 (CSB)
23 Why is life given to a man whose path is hidden, whom God has hedged in?


This passage, which encompasses all of chapter 3, is Job’s opening speech following the arrival of his friends and the week long silent comradery.

The text, at least in the CSB translation, is broken into three main parts, which, it seems to me, constitute three, related, massages of Job.

  1. Job 3:3-10 comprise Job’s cursing of the day he was born. There is a consistent contrast of light versus dark, or day versus night, throughout this section, clearly along the lines of light being life, and dark being death, or at least a non-existence, or inactivity of some sort. This is the start of Job’s lament that he would rather never have been born, than to be in his current condition.
  2. Job 3:11-19 relays Job’s wish that he had died and never been born. This is a rough section, with raw emotion. Unlike the kind of metaphorical verses previous, these verses are description and scream Job’s suffering state. Job laments why he was not stillborn or miscarried, or why he was not left without nourishment as a newborn, to die. Interleaved, he fondly describes what seems to be a cemetery, or some sort of burial plot, and how it brings rest to the inhabitants. The wicked are freed from their troublesome ways, the slaves are free from their taskmasters. This “rest” is what Job longs for in the midst of hi current misery.
  3. Job 3:20-26 concludes with Job’s wish that he would now die. Finally he questions why someone, referring to himself, who wants to die, continues to receive “light”, or life. Job is clear that death is his desire, he longs for it, more than one would seek “hidden treasure”. In Job 3:23 we see an interesting line: Job is troubled by the hedge which God has put around him, as it brings uncertainty, lack of clarity, a fear, since what is beyond is hidden, and Job is trapped. It is curious that back in Job 1:10, the Satan accused God of just that: placing a hedge around Job. It is curious how that hedge, placed by God, is contrasted in the two verses. The section completes with Job’s expression of his current state: one of fear and dread, and restlessness and turmoil.


Lord, thank you for Job! Not a thankfulness for what Job had to endure, the pain and suffering, but thank you for the real example of a man enduring great suffering that we might relate to. We can trust that you are in control, you place the hedges. Amen.